Password Algorithms: Yahoo Messenger

Introduction

OPSWAT listed Yahoo Messenger as the 3rd most popular IM application in June 2011 with 15.10% of market share.

I read Slicks in-depth analysis already and other claims of recovery being “impossible” so I was interested to see if any progress could be made upon Slicks earlier work.

As Slick indicates in his article, it would appear the only login information stored on the user’s computer is a token, therefore you can certainly transfer the token to another machine but you can’t recover the plaintext password.

Storage

Based on version 11.5.0 which is the latest release, if the user checks “Remember My ID and password”, the application will store some session information in the user’s personal registry file: NTUSER.DAT

C:>reg query "HKCU\Software\Yahoo\pager" /v ETS

HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Yahoo\pager
    ETS REG_SZ  eJxjZGBguNAz9z6j6EXBniqGA/6Hpr9mBIq90W3gn8fk6T . . .

The above value is truncated but from analysing the binaries, it’s definitely a Base64 string.

Algorithm

If you pass the ETS string to OpenSSL for decoding, it reveals a ZLib blob which you can tell from the first couple of bytes. 0x78 0x9c

# hexdump ets.bin
00000000: 78 9c 63 64 60 60 b8 d0 - 33 f7 3e a3 e8 45 c1 9e   x.cd.... 3....E..
00000010: 2a 86 03 fe 87 a6 bf 66 - 04 8a bd d1 6d e0 9f c7   .......f ....m...
00000020: e4 e9 3a 6d 8a d0 c7 43 - ba 8d 6b 80 42 0c 4c 20   ...m...C ..k.B.L.
00000030: 82 81 39 8d 81 61 05 90 - 16 00 e2 9a da fe 63 a5   ..9..a.. ......

We can decompress this stream using Zpipe and dump it once again to see the results.

# zpipe -d < ets.bin > unknown.bin
# hexdump unknown.bin
00000000: 01 00 00 00 d0 8c 9d df - 01 15 d1 11 8c 7a 00 c0   ........ .....z..
00000010: 4f c2 97 eb 01 00 00 00 - ec 2d 80 0f 9e 02 49 45   O....... ......IE
00000020: 96 94 12 f1 c2 2d 81 ac - 00 00 00 00 02 00 00 00   ........ ........
00000030: 00 00 03 66 00 00 a8 00 - 00 00 10 00 00 00 7c 7d   ...f.... ........

The above binary data is a DPAPI blob and this is passed to CryptUnprotectData using some entropy.

The entropy is the string “MBCS sucks” with the Yahoo id appended, for example.

MBCS suckssomeyahooid@domain.com

The result of the decrypted DPAPI blob is a Yahoo 64 encoded string which Slick discusses in his article.
My own cookie/token looked something like the following:

ALRX7U8E1cicRDzhXXX5vlue_Mg.9BmHv25VeQRdTriqUbw6MccGEg--

The Yahoo 64 algorithm uses same alphabet as standard Base64 except the last 2 bytes are different and padding uses “-” instead of “=”

"ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789._"

Conclusion

We’ve seen how it’s possible to dump the token from the registry which can at least in theory be used to login from another system.

Perhaps in future entry the token generation can be revealed :)

To be continued . . .

5 thoughts on “Password Algorithms: Yahoo Messenger

  1. Pingback: Password Algorithms: bcrypt File Encryption | Insecurety Research

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>